Over 200 species of animals became extinct between 10,000 and 20,000 BC. The period is known as the Pleistocene Extinction. Catastrophism vs uniformitarianism, or gradualism (three theories that get various people arguing)... while all three are actually active in nature. It is possible that evolution could not cope with the vast changes over a period of several thousand years, or they could have been wiped out all at once.One of the indicators of a catastrophy at the end of the Pleistocene 12,000 years ago is the huge numbers of frozen carcasses in both eastern and western hemispheres, North America and Russia/Siberia.Back in middle 1940s Dr. Frank C. Hibben, Prof. of Archeology at the University of New Mexico mounted an expedition to Alaska to look for human remains.  Instead he found gold, and massive amounts of mammoth, mastodon, several kinds of bison, horses, wolves, bears and lions, all trapped in ice and he ended up with their rotting carcasses. The ice sheet they were trapped in stretched for miles, with very little rock except below the thick layer of ice. He had concluded that an enormous tidal wave (a tsunami) had wiped out the creatures, along with trees and peat moss, and that they had floated in the ice dead until the ice itself had frozen completely. The ice had frozen relatively quickly.Other non-arctic creatures were affected: giant tortoises living in the Caribbean Sea, the giant sloth, the sabre-toothed tiger, the glyptodont and toxodon. These were all tropical animals. With the exception of the tortoise, they all live on the ground however and need to breath air.Others: Woolly rhinoceros, giant armadillos, giant beavers, giant jaguars, ground sloths, antelopes, American camels, Asian elephants (Indian elephants came from the sub-continent of India).All died at roughly the same time, 10,000 BC. They were not slowly killed off. They were quickly killed off  . It is also important to note that people should not confuse this with the extinction of the dinosaurs, which happened millions of years ago in contrast.Pleistocene geologist William R. Farrand of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, who is opposed to catastrophism in any form, states: "Sudden death is indicated by the robust condition of the animals and their full stomachs . . . the animals were robust and healthy when they died" (Farrand, 1961).It has been estimated that some ten million animals lay buried along the rivers of northern Siberia. Thousands of tusks formed a massive ivory trade for the master carvers of China, all from the remains of the frozen mammoths and mastodons of Siberia. The famous Beresovka mammoth first drew attention to the preserving properties of being quick-frozen when buttercups were found in its mouth. This was no gradual event--it had to be sudden!

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